P. perfoliatum is capable of causing significant damage to freshwater ecosystems and to commercial forests areas and forests regeneration. Therefore, the potential risk of P. perfoliatum should not be accepted. Estimate the probability of entry: The probability of unintentional introduction of seeds with plants for planting with growing media from countries where P. polygonum occurs is moderately high. Nevertheless, the plant already occurs in Turkey and maybe in other places where it has not been recorded. Probability of entry is moderately high.

Estimate the probability of establishment: Once entered, the plant has a high probability to establish and to spread. Probability of establishment is high.

Estimate the potential economic impact: The plant may be a threat in tree plantations and possibly in nurseries of the countries at risk. The main impacts would be on environment, especially on freshwater ecosystems. Potential of economic damage is considered medium to high.

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