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Importation of fresh fruit of avocado (Persea americana) for consumption from South Africa into the United States - A Qualitative, Pathway-Initiated Pest Risk Assessment



[Draft made available to stakeholder comments up to 2023-06-08] 

The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prepared this document to assess pest risks associated with importing commercially produced fresh fruit of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae), for consumption from South Africa into the United States. The pathway was considered to include the following processes and conditions: fresh fruit of P. americana subject to standard industry practices (e.g., inspection and culling of damaged fruit, washing). The pest risk ratings depend upon the application of all conditions of the pathway as described. Avocado fruit produced under different conditions was not evaluated and may have a different pest risk.

Using the scientific literature, scientific databases, and U.S. port interception records, a list of quarantine pests that occur in South Africa (on any host) and are associated with P. americana (anywhere in the world) was developed. Those quarantine pests judged likely to follow the import pathway were evaluated to estimate their likelihood of introduction (entry and establishment). Results of the evaluation are summarized below.

Summary for pests selected for further evaluation and determined to be candidates for risk management.

Ceratitis cosyra

Ceratitis rosa

Thaumatotibia leucotreta

Diaporthe perseae

Elsinoë perseae

The following organisms are likely to follow the pathway but were not assessed in this document because they have already been determined to pose an unacceptable risk to the United States. Domestic regulations are in place for these pests: Bactrocera dorsalis, 

Detailed examination and choice of appropriate phytosanitary measures to mitigate pest risk are addressed separately from this document.


  • Bactrocera dorsalis
  • Brevipalpus californicus
  • Ceratitis capitata
  • Ceratitis cosyra
  • Ceratitis rosa
  • Diaporthe sp.
  • Elsinoë perseae
  • Persea americana
  • Tetranychus neocaledonicus
  • Thaumatotibia leucotreta


  • Persea americana


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 713,65kB

PRA Area

  • United States of America