EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Rapid Pest Risk Analysis for Xiphinema americanum s.l. (European populations)


This rapid assessment shows: 

Risk of entry: Risk of entry of X. americanum s.l. from continental Europe is high because of the high levels of trade in potted plants with Europe together with the lower levels of inspection of these plants compared to imports from third countries and the difficulties of detection. The risk of entry of X. americanum s.l. carrying the viruses ToRSV or TRSV will be lower, as there is no evidence that European populations of X. rivesi (the only known vector species in the X. americanum s.l. group present in Europe) are implicated in virus transmission in the field, though they have been shown to be capable vectors experimentally.

The lack of information on the precise origin of imported plants (with soil) from EU MS means that it is not currently known whether any of the imported material is grown in areas where X. americanum s.l. is present. In addition, accurate and detailed information on the distribution of X. americanum s.l. in Europe is lacking and it is likely that it may be more widespread than the seven EU countries in which it is currently known to occur. The pest may have already entered and become established in the UK, either from third countries or EU MS without being detected, so, whilst the risk of entry is considered to be high, there is also a high level of uncertainty in this assessment.


  • Cheravirus avii
  • Nepovirus lycopersici
  • Nepovirus nicotianae
  • Nepovirus persicae
  • Xiphinema americanum sensu lato
  • Xiphinema americanum sensu stricto
  • Xiphinema brevicolle
  • Xiphinema bricolense
  • Xiphinema californicum
  • Xiphinema neoamericanum
  • Xiphinema pachtaicum
  • Xiphinema rivesi
  • Xiphinema tarjanense


  • Acer palmatum
  • Araucaria sp.
  • Bambusa vulgaris
  • Camellia sp.
  • Cornus sp.
  • Dicksonia sp.
  • Ficus sp.
  • Ilex crenata
  • Ligustrum sp.
  • Loropetalum chinense
  • Pachira aquatica
  • Podocarpus macrophyllus
  • Serissa japonica
  • Taxus cuspidata
  • Trachycarpus fortunei
  • Ulmus sp.
  • Zelkova serrata


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 441,86kB

PRA Area

  • United Kingdom