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Express PRA for citrus bark cracking viroid


For the first time, the citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) was detected in citrus cultivation in California (USA) in 1988. The first detection in hop cultivation in Germany was in 2019. The occurrence of CBCVd is known from Greece, Italy and Slovenia. So far, it is not listed in the Annexes of Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 but since 2017, it is included in the EPPO-A2-List. In 2015, after the occurrence in hop, Slovenia took emergency measures against the introduction and distribution of the viroid that were adapted to the rapid infestation development in 2019. 

CBCVd is mainly known as a viroid with low damage potential for citrus plants. In 2007, firstly symptoms of CBCVd were observed on hop in Slovenia. Infected plants die after 3 - 5 years. Due to appropriate climate conditions, it is assumed that CBCVd is able to establish outdoors in the hop cultivation regions in Germany. The establishment in South European EU Member States (Italy and Greece) in Citrus spp. did already happen. Due to its high damage potential for hop, CBCVd bears a high phytosanitary risk for Germany and other EU Member States with hop cultivation. Based on this risk analysis, it is assumed that the harmful organism is able to establish in Germany or another Member State and cause severe damage. Thus, measures on the prevention of the introduction and spread on hop plants of this potential quarantine pest should be met according to Article 29 Regulation (EU) 2016/2031. An infection has to be notified and eradicated accordingly. It is recommended to conduct a comprehensive monitoring on hop in the endangered areas in respect to this harmful organism.


  • Citrus bark cracking viroid


  • Humulus lupulus


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 383,49kB

PRA Area

  • Germany