EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Pest categorisation of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovars oryzae and oryzicola


The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation for Xanthomonas oryzaepathovars oryzae (Xoo) and oryzicola (Xoc), the causal agents of the bacterial blight and the bacterial leaf streak of rice, respectively. These pathovars are widely distributed in Asia, Africa and Australia. Xoo is also reported in some states of the USA and in some other countries of America. The identity of both pathovars is well established and efficient identification methods are available. The major host is cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), but different Oryza spp. as well as Poaceae weeds are reported as alternative hosts, with some uncertainty concerning the actual host range. Both pathovars are seed associated, despite the fact that seed transmission is still controversial for Xoo. Both pathovars are already regulated in Directives 2000/29/EC, on harmful organisms for plants, and 66/402/EEC, on the marketing of cereal seeds. The main pathway for entry is seed. Should these pathovars enter into EU, they may establish and spread, and they may have an impact on the rice crops, with uncertainties. The knowledge gaps identified are (1) the quantity of EU importation of rice seeds, (2) the risk of introduction through unprocessed rice for consumption, (3) the suitability of the EU growing climate conditions for the bacteria to establish and spread, (4) role of seed transmission (Xoo), (5) the role of weeds in the epidemiology and especially in seed transmission and dispersal, (6) host range of weeds. As none of the pathovars is known to occur in the EU, they do not meet one of the criteria for being considered as Union regulated non-quarantine pests. Nevertheless, both pathovars meet the criteria assessed by EFSA for consideration as Union quarantine pest.


  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
  • Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Link to file

PRA Area

  • EU
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
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  • Finland
  • France
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  • Greece
  • Hungary
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  • Sweden