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Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) - pest status in the EU, likelihood of eradication and evaluation against RNQP-criteria


Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) is a tobamovirus that was first described from Jordan in 2016. Since then, it has been reported from many countries worldwide including 17 member states of the European Union (EU). Economically important hosts of ToBRFV are tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and pepper (Capsicum spp.). In the EU, outbreaks have mostly been reported in tomato. There are currently no tomato cultivars available that are fully resistant against ToBRFV. In Capsicum, symptomatic plants have only incidentally been reported in the EU. Capsicum cultivars are available that harbour L-resistance genes/alleles that are considered effective but uncertainty exists if they confer full resistance under all conditions. ToBRFV is regulated by emergency measures (Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2020/1191, amended by Commission implementing regulation (EU) 2021/74 and Commission Implementing regulation (EU) 2021/1809) which apply until 31 May 2023. ToBRFV is present in the EU and eradication is unlikely to be achieved. The virus can be transmitted by seeds but also easily by contact. Seeds and seedlings are considered a significant pathway, especially when growers take hygiene measures to prevent the introduction of the virus into the production site. The presence of ToBRFV on seeds and seedlings of tomato plants and susceptible pepper plants is assessed to have an unacceptable economic impact as regards to the intended use of those plants for planting. Feasible and effective measures are available to prevent its presence on seeds and seedlings of tomato and susceptible pepper cultivars. ToBRFV meets all criteria to be considered as a RNQP except that it is currently subject to temporarily measures adopted pursuant to Article 30(1) of EU Regulation 2016/2031.


  • Tobamovirus fructirugosum


  • Capsicum
  • Solanum lycopersicum


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 439,27kB

PRA Area

  • Netherlands