EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Modeling the Potential Global Distribution of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green under Various Climate Change Scenarios


Wei, J.; Li, X.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Q. Modeling the Potential Global Distribution of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green under Various Climate Change Scenarios. Forests 201910, 773.  https://doi.org/10.3390/f10090773 

The Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, is a serious invasive pest that does significant damage to more than 120 genera of host plants from 51 families in more than 81 countries. However, the potential distribution range of this pest is unclear, which could hamper control and eradication efforts. In the current study, MaxEnt models were developed to forecast the current and future distribution of the Madeira mealybug around the world. Moreover, the future potential distribution of this invasive species was projected for the 2050s and 2070s under three different climate change scenarios (HADGEM2-AO, GFDL-CM3, and MIROC5) and two representative concentration pathways (RCP-2.6 and RCP-8.5). The final model indicates that the Madeira mealybug has a highly suitable range for the continents of Asia, Europe, and Africa, as well as South America and North America, where this species has already been recorded. Potential expansions or reductions in distribution were also simulated under different future climatic conditions. Our study also suggested that the mean temperature of the driest quarter (Bio9) was the most important factor and explained 46.9% of the distribution model. The distribution model from the current and future predictions can enhance the strategic planning of agricultural and forestry organization by identifying regions that will need to develop integrated pest management programs to manage Madeira mealybug, especially for some highly suitable areas, such as South Asia and Europe. Moreover, the results of this research will help governments to optimize investment in the control and management of the Madeira mealybug by identifying regions that are or will become suitable for infestations.


  • Phenacoccus madeirensis


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 2,06MB

PRA Area

  • EPPO
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Guernsey
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Moldova
  • Montenegro
  • Morocco
  • Netherlands
  • North Macedonia
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Tunisia
  • Türkiye
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • Uzbekistan