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A menu of measures to manage trade-related plant pest risks, and a review of methods for demonstrating measure efficacy.


van Klinken, R.D., Kingham, L., Hill, M.P. et al. A menu of measures to manage trade-related plant pest risks, and a review of methods for demonstrating measure efficacy. Biol Invasions 25, 1227–1248 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-022-02977-2

Ever-increasing global trade is one of the most important introduction pathways for plant pests. A diverse range of risk-reducing measures can be applied depending on the pest, the commodity and the import requirements. We used a review of over 1,800 risk reduction measures to extend a risk framework and menu of measures, previously developed for horticulture, to be applied to any commodity. We also reviewed how the efficacy of risk reduction measures is demonstrated, and assessed the maturity of the supporting science. We identified 39 unique risk reduction measures that were classified according to how they reduce risk. These were grouped under ten measure categories and four risk reduction objectives (minimising exposure to pest, minimising vulnerability of the commodity, reducing infestation rate and reducing establishment risk). These could then be applied against one or more consignment stages (production, post-production and post-border). Measures covered both commercial activities that reduce risk and may contribute to pest risk assessment, and regulated measures mandated to address unrestricted risk. Almost 90% of citations included measures that minimised exposure to pests or reduced infestation. Some measures were rarely reported, and some commodity classes had few measures associated with them, suggesting that available measures are being underutilised. Clear guidance was apparent for demonstrating efficacy of some measures (e.g., kill treatments), but lacking for many others. Compiling a ‘menu of risk reduction measures’ according to how they reduce risk, accompanied by clear guidelines for demonstrating efficacy, provides a robust basis for agreement between jurisdictions, and the further development, refinement and communication of efforts to both assess and manage the risk of global, trade-related pest movement. Agreement on how efficacy can be demonstrated for less utilised measures identified in this study will contribute to the further development of risk-based trade.


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 1,10MB