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Importation of orange (Citrus sinensis) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata) from Egypt into the United States for consumption - A Qualitative, Pathway Initiated Pest Risk Assessment



[for comments to stakeholders up to 2023-02-12]

The purpose of this report is to assess the pest risks associated with importing commercially produced fruit of orange (Citrus sinensis) and tangerine (Citrus reticulata) (Rutaceae), from Egypt into the United States for consumption.

Based on the market access request submitted by the government of Egypt, we considered the pathway to include the following processes and conditions: soil and debris removal, visual inspection and culling, and washing. The pest risk ratings depend on the application of all conditions of the pathway as described in this document; fruit produced under different conditions were not evaluated and may pose a different pest risk.

We used scientific literature, and port-of-entry pest interception data to develop a list of pests with quarantine significance for the United States. These are pests that occur in Egypt on any host and are associated with the commodity plant species anywhere in the world.

The following organisms are candidates for pest risk management because they have met the threshold for unacceptable consequences of introduction and can follow the commodity import pathway.

Dacus ciliatus

Cryptoblabes gnidiella

The following organisms are likely to follow the pathway but were not assessed in this document because they have already been determined to pose an unacceptable risk to the United States. Domestic regulations are in place for these pests:

Bactrocera zonata

Ceratitis capitata

The detailed examination and choice of appropriate phytosanitary measures to mitigate pest risk are addressed in a separate document.


  • Bactrocera zonata
  • Cenopalpus pulcher
  • Ceratitis capitata
  • Cryptoblabes gnidiella
  • Dacus ciliatus
  • Eutetranychus orientalis
  • Helicoverpa armigera
  • Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae
  • Maconellicoccus hirsutus
  • Nipaecoccus viridis
  • Rastrococcus invadens


  • Citrus reticulata
  • Citrus sinensis


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 771,71kB

PRA Area

  • United States of America