Pest categorisation of non‐EU Acleris spp.
The Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of non-EU Acleris spp. Acleris is a welldeﬁned insect genus in the family Tortricidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera). Species can be identiﬁed using taxonomic keys based on adult morphology and genitalia. The genus includes 261 species attacking conifers and non-conifer plants in many areas in the world, among which 40 species are present in the EU. The non-EU species are collectively listed in Annex IAI of Council Directive 2000/29/EC as Acleris spp. (non-European). Some species are important defoliators in North America, mainly on conifers but also on several broadleaf trees. Females lay eggs on the leaves or on the bark. The larvae bind together with silk the leaves upon which they feed. Pupation occurs in leaves attached with silk or in the soil. Some species are univoltine; others are bivoltine or multivoltine. Flight capacity is not documented, but outbreak expansion suggests that the adults can probably ﬂy long distances. The main pathways for entry are host plants for planting with or without soil, cut branches, fruits of host plants (including cones), round wood with bark and bark. The presence of host plants and suitable EU climate would allow the establishment of the known non-EU harmful species. In the literature, nine non-EU Acleris species are reported as pests on various host plants, namely A. gloverana, A. variana, A. minuta, A. nishidai, A. issikii, A. semipurpurana, A. robinsoniana, A. senescens and A. nivisellana. These non-EU Acleris spp. satisfy all the criteria to be considered as Union quarantine pests. Concerning the other 212 non-EU Acleris species, there is scarce information on host plants, pests status and climatic suitability. Measures are in place to prevent the introduction of non-EU Acleris spp. through the pathways described in the document. As non-EU Acleris spp. are not present in the EU and plants for planting are not the major pathway for spread, non-EU Acleris spp. do not meet the criteria to be considered as regulated non-quarantine pests.
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