EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Pining away and at home: global utilisation of Pinus radiata by native and non-native insects


Brockerhoff EG, Gresham BA, Meurisse N, Nahrung HF, Perret-Gentil A, Pugh AR, Sopow SL, Turner RM (2023)  Pining away and at home: global utilisation of Pinus radiata by native and non-native insects. NeoBiota 84, 137-167. https://doi.org/10.3897/neobiota.84.95864 

Pinus radiata (radiata pine or Monterey pine) is threatened in its native range in California and, at the same time, one of the most widely-planted tree species worldwide, especially in the southern hemisphere. It is affected by a wide range of plant-feeding insects both in its native range and in regions where it is planted as an introduced tree. In addition, there are many invasive insects that have colonised P. radiata, in some cases causing major damage. Here, our objectives were to provide a complete and up-to-date overview of all insect species recorded from P. radiata worldwide, to summarise where these insects are native and which countries or regions they have invaded, to categorise them according to their impacts as damaging species or as vectors of plant pathogens, and to examine border interceptions to determine whether pathways exist that would allow these species to enter and potentially invade additional regions. Our compilation of insects feeding on P. radiata provides a list of 649 species (and an additional 11 species identified at the genus level only). Coleoptera is the most represented order in the list (299 species), followed by Lepidoptera (224 species) and Hemiptera (65 species). We classified 28 species as high-impact, including 12 true bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), eight Lepidoptera, five other Coleoptera, two Hymenoptera and one Hemiptera. These species can cause substantial direct damage or act as vectors of highly-damaging plant pathogens. Other species cause only occasional damage, rarely requiring management (classified as ‘low-medium impact’) or they are generally benign (‘negligible impact’). Hemiptera and Scolytinae have a high proportion of species established outside their native range. The Nearctic and Neotropic regions have been invaded by the most high-impact species, mainly by species native to Europe. Border interceptions of 185 species (29% of those on our list) were recorded during import inspections between 1995–2021, indicating considerable potential for further invasions. The findings of our study can be used to identify potential high-impact invaders and the pathways that may require more phytosanitary attention. Furthermore, our analyses provide useful insights into the insect-plant interactions resulting from the global distribution of a tree species and the native and non-native insects feeding on it.


  • Conophthorus radiatae
  • Dioryctria splendidella
  • Ernobius punctulatus
  • Essigella californica
  • Hyalarcta huebneri
  • Hylastes angustatus
  • Hylastes ater
  • Hylobius abietis
  • Ips grandicollis
  • Ips paraconfusus
  • Ips plastographus
  • Ips sexdentatus
  • Lymantria dispar
  • Monochamus galloprovincialis
  • Neodiprion sertifer
  • Orthotomicus erosus
  • Pinus radiata
  • Pissodes castaneus
  • Pissodes nemorensis
  • Pityophthorus carmeli
  • Pityophthorus setosus
  • Pseudips mexicanus
  • Rhyacionia buoliana
  • Rhyacionia frustrana
  • Thaumetopoea pityocampa
  • Tomicus piniperda


  • Pinus radiata


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