EPPO Platform
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Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Plant Health on the pest risk analysis made by EPPO on Lysichiton americanus Hultén & St. John (American or yellow skunk cabbage)


Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Scientific Panel on Plant Heath was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on two pest risk analyses made by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO) on invasive alien plants (American skunk cabbage and floating pennywort). The Panel was in particular asked a) whether these organisms can be considered as harmful for the endangered area of the European Community and thus potentially eligible for addition to the list of harmful organisms in the plant health Directive 2000/29/EC, and b) whether the identified management options are appropriate through an evaluation of their efficacy, feasibility and impact. 

This document presents the opinion of the Panel on Plant Health on the pest risk analysis made by EPPO on Lysichiton americanus Hultén and St. John. 

L. americanus is a yellow-flowered herbaceous perennial plant known as American skunk cabbage or yellow skunk cabbage. It can be terrestrial, semi-aquatic and even aquatic. It has been introduced into Europe intentionally as an ornamental garden plant. It is naturalised in several European countries including Ireland, Germany, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and UK. However, invasive behaviour has been reported in parts of Europe, with local species extinction reported in Germany. 


  • Lysichiton americanus


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Link to file

PRA Area

  • EU
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden