EPPO Study on wood commodities other than round wood, sawn wood and manufactured items
Parts of trees can carry pests, and represent a significant potential pathway for moving pests into new areas. During recent EPPO Expert Working Groups for Pest Risk Analysis it was noted that there is little information available on the different types of nonmanufactured wood commodities being moved into and within the region. A study was therefore commissioned to gather more data including information on measures being applied to these commodities by industry or by importing countries. A desk study was carried out by a consultant and reviewed by an Expert Working Group, whose participants are shown below. The title of the study was amended after its inception so that it covers “wood commodities other than round wood, sawn wood and manufactured items”. Round wood and sawn wood are already well defined internationally, and appropriate measures can be specified. Manufactured items are the subject of an International Standard in preparation on “International movement of wood products and handicrafts made from wood”. The study concluded that “firewood” is not a useful category for risk assessment and risk management measures - any sort of wood may be burned. The key factors driving risk are the area of origin and the pests present there, and the type of processes to which the commodity has been subject which may kill pests or prevent their dispersal. In many cases wood is subject to a succession of processes by different operators, in different locations, for different purposes. For example chips may be made directly from fresh wood, from harvesting residues, from processing residues or from post-consumer scrap, either in the area in which the trees were grown or far away. While for perishable plant products end use may be an important determinant of risk (ISPM 32, 2012), for wood this is not the case. Wood is relatively durable and risks arise during transport and storage regardless of its ultimate use. A range of different cutting and crushing processes are described, along with the descriptive terms, specifications (where available) and uses for the resulting products. Some assessment is made of the extent to which these processes reduce risks from different types of organisms. Presence of bark and wood together significantly increases the risks for some pests which live in the cambium between the two. In many cases data on survival (or efficacy if the process is regarded as a phytosanitary measure) is lacking. The study provides some indications of key data gaps (e.g. survival of bark beetles in chips of 2.5 cm maximum dimension) which could be addressed through research.
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- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Czech Republic
- North Macedonia
- United Kingdom