Scientific Opinion on the pest categorisation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus and related viruses causing tomato yellow leaf curl disease in Europe
The Panel on Plant Health performed for the European Union (EU) territory a pest categorisation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and three related viruses, Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), Tomato yellow leaf curl Axarquia virus (TYLCAxV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Malaga virus (TYLCMaV), which collectively cause the tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD) in Europe. The viruses are well-defined species of the genus Begomovirus, are exclusively transmitted by members of the Bemisia tabaci species complex and have tomato, as well as a few other crops or weeds, as their hosts. TYLCV is listed on tomato plants for planting, other than seeds, in Annex IIAII of Directive 2000/29/EC. While establishment and local spread rely on the Bemisia vector, the viruses can also be disseminated over long distances by movement of infected plants for planting or by consignments of non-host plants carrying viruliferous whiteflies. Establishment outdoors and spread are limited to regions with ecoclimatic conditions suitable for the establishment of vector populations in the open. Outbreaks can nevertheless occur in other regions under protected cultivation conditions. Because of the very high potential impact of TYLCD, tomato production in affected regions requires intensive crop management efforts to reduce impact. TYLCV appears to be present in almost all EU regions with suitable ecoclimatic conditions for its establishment in open fields, while the other three viruses do not appear to have reached their full establishment potential. All four viruses are absent from other regions of the EU but have the potential to cause temporary outbreaks there.
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