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Phytosanitary risk analysis of the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) (Newman) on Malus spp. (apple), Prunus spp. (stone fruit species), Zea mays (maize) and Vitis spp. (vineyards) for Bulgaria


In Bulgarian with English abstract

Анализ на фитосанитарния риск от вредителя Японски бръмбар (Popillia japonica)(Newman) по Malus spp. (ябълка), Prunus spp. (костилкови овощни видове), Zea mays (царевица) и Vitis spp. (лозя) за България

The current phytosanitary risk analysis aims to identify the the possibilities for entry, establishment and possible methods of control of the pest Popillia japonica in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as the possible consequences for the production from the main host plants, found in Bulgaria.

Sustainable agriculture and food security in Europe are threatened by invading new pests through trade and the movement of goods and people. This is the case with the Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica), which has been a major pest of plants in the United States for more than a century.It has recently been registered in Europe (Italy, Switzerland and Portugal), where it continues to spread. This pest is a polyphagous and feeds on hundreds of ornamental plants, fruit trees, cultivated plants and tree species.P. japonica, is a quarantine pest for Europe (Council Directive 2000/29 / EC) and is included in Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2019/1702 of 1st August 2019 supplementing Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Union Parliament and the Council by establishing a list of priority pests in the European Union (EU). The new Plant Health Act (Regulation (EU) 2016/2031 of the European Parliament) provides for the eradication or reduction of such pests. As eradication is almost impossible, the purpose of these measures is to ensure that the distribution of P. japonica is limited to safe levels for the environment.

Climate risk mapping shows that areas threatened by the entry and establishment of P. japonica extend from the Atlantic to the Black Sea and from the Mediterranean to Northern Germany, the United Kingdom and southern Scandinavia. In addition, there is evidence that high human activity may facilitate the detection of P. japonica in regions with unsuitable climates. This provides space for virtually unlimited distribution of P. japonica in Europe in the coming years.

The Japanese beetle is native to northern Japan and the far east of Russia. There it is a minor pest, as it has several natural enemies. In addition, the local climate and unsuitable terrain for larvae development, help to prevent high population density. In 1916, the Japanese beetle was first discovered in the United States, probably introduced with plant material from Japan. In Europe, it was first registered in Italy in 2014, where its population is gradually growing, and in 2017, it was registered at the southern border of Switzerland.

Due to this wide range of hosts, the Japanese beetle poses a serious threat to many sectors of agricultural production.

Data on the economic losses, caused by P. japonica attacks in Europe are not yet available, due to its recent emergence and so far limited distribution.

In addition to the economic impact, the presence of P. japonica in Europe raises serious environmental concerns due to the increased use of pesticides, which is likely to occur during the P. japonica invasion.

Climate change is expected to exacerbate the threat of the Japanese beetle invasion in Europe. Not only the distribution limits of P. japonica that can be pushed north and south, but also its voltaism, which will change as a result of climate change.


  • Popillia japonica


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 2,38MB

PRA Area

  • Bulgaria