EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Pest categorisation of Zaprionus indianus


The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae), the African fig fly for the territory of the EU.

This species successfully colonised the Indian subcontinent more than four decades ago, and more recently South and North America. Within the EU, the pest occurs in Cyprus, Malta, Portugal (Madeira) and Spain (Canary Islands and Andalusia). 

Z. indianus is not listed in Annex II of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. The larvae of this fly feed on more than 80 plant species both cultivated and non-cultivated. Females produce around 60–70 eggs. Egg laying mostly occurs in decaying fruit or fruit with injuries or mechanical damage. However,  Z. indianus can oviposit on undamaged healthy fruit such as figs, strawberries and guavas which provide a potential pathway for entry into the EU. Lower temperature thresholds are around 9–10°C. Optimum development occurs at 28°C. The number of generations per year varies from 12 to 16. Climatic conditions in many EU member states and host plant availability in those areas are conducive for establishment. 

The introduction of Z. indianus is expected to have an economic impact in the EU especially on fig and strawberry production. Damage caused by other fruit flies (Drosophilidae and Tephritidae) could be increased by mixed infestations. Phytosanitary measures are available to reduce the likelihood of entry and further spread. 

Z. indianus satisfies all of the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest.


  • Zaprionus indianus


  • Ficus carica
  • Fragaria x ananassa


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Link to file

PRA Area

  • EU
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden