EPPO Platform
on PRAs

EPPO PRA for Alternanthera philoxeroides


Alternanthera philoxeroides presents a high phytosanitary risk for the EPPO region with a low uncertainty rating. 

A. philoxeroides is already present in the EPPO region in France and Italy. Further spread within and between EPPO countries is considered likely. The overall likelihood of A. philoxeroides continuing to enter the EPPO region is medium. It is not clear how this species entered the EPPO region and there are no clear pathways of further introduction, as the species is not widely traded as an aquarium plant or as any other type of living plant material. 

There may be confusion with A. sessilis, or other Alternanthera species traded for aquarium, ornamental or food purposes. The risk of the species establishing in other EPPO countries is considered high as movement through irrigation and river systems may act to connect countries, facilitating spread regionally, especially through high energy unstable river systems that may encourage fragmentation. Spread may be significantly accelerated by water based recreational activities. 

The potential high impact of the species within the EPPO region should be considered similar to that seen in other countries where the species has invaded and become established; i.e. Australia and the southern states of North America. Impacts are likely to be more pronounced in countries and regions where the climate most suited to population, establishment, growth and spread.

2021: The PRA was modified to clarify the phytosanitary measures recommended


  • Alternanthera philoxeroides


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 1,51MB

PRA Area

  • EPPO
  • Albania
  • Algeria
  • Austria
  • Azerbaijan
  • Belarus
  • Belgium
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Georgia
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Guernsey
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Jersey
  • Jordan
  • Kazakhstan
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Moldova
  • Montenegro
  • Morocco
  • Netherlands
  • North Macedonia
  • Norway
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Russia
  • Serbia
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden
  • Switzerland
  • Tunisia
  • Türkiye
  • Ukraine
  • United Kingdom
  • Uzbekistan