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Summary of the Express Pest Risk Analysis for Citrus bark cracking viroid


CBCVd occurences in Slovenia indicate that viroid may be transmitted between different hosts species. CBCVd outbreaks in Slovenia represent a high risk for European hop production.

Viroid has negative impact on hops gardens (negative effect on growth) and causes serious losses (infected plants die within 3-5 years). Viroid may also causes serious economic damage in case of occurence in PRA area.

Import of infected citrus is main way of entry. Most of plant waste is sent to landfill sites, where virioid poses no risk.

Viroid spread from citrus to hops is associated with risk of the waste-related transmission.

The likelihood of CBCVd spread is high because of vegetative propagation and a lot of plant waste.

Viroid can be transmitted by vegetative propagation, grafting, foliar contact between neighboring plants, contaminated tools and machinery, clothing because of that  there needs to be compliance with  phytosanitary measures.

The protection against viroids is based on systematic monitoring of imported propagation plant material. All infected plants and vectors (on plants/fruits) need to be remove and destroy. It will ensure adequate protection against viroids development in PRA area. Cultivations of host plants need to be systematically monitored in case of viroid occurence.

Propagation material and seeds imported to Poland should have viroid-free certificate.


  • Citrus bark cracking viroid


  • Chrysanthemum x morifolium
  • Citrus
  • Cucumis sativus
  • Humulus lupulus
  • Solanum lycopersicum
  • Solanum melongena


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 434,29kB

PRA Area

  • Poland