Pest categorisation of coconut cadang-cadang viroid
The EFSA Panel on Plant Health updated its 2017 pest categorisation of coconut cadang cadang viroid (CCCVd) for the EU territory due to new data on its host range. The identity of CCCVd, a member of the genus Cocadviroid (family Pospiviroidae), is established and detection and identification methods are available. It is included as a quarantine pest for the EU in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. CCCVd has been reported from the Philippines and Malaysia. It is not known to be present in the EU. The host range of CCCVd is restricted to Arecaceae species (palms), in particular, coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) to which it causes a lethal disease. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and buri palm (Corypha utan) are other natural hosts of CCCVd. Palm species of several genera, including Phoenix spp. and other species grown and/or cultivated in the EU, have been identified as potential hosts. The viroid is naturally transmitted at low rate by seeds and pollen and possibly by additional not yet identified natural transmission means. It can be transmitted through vegetative propagation applied to some palm species. Plants for planting including seeds of its hosts have been identified as the main entry pathway of CCCVd. Potential hosts of CCCVd are present in the EU, therefore establishment is possible. Should the pest establish in the EU, an impact is expected, with uncertainty on its magnitude. The Panel identified the susceptibility of palm species grown in the EU as a key uncertainty potentially affecting the conclusion of this pest categorisation. Nevertheless, the pest satisfies the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for this viroid to be regarded as potential Union quarantine pest.
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