EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Importation of fresh immature coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) from Viet Nam into the United States for consumption - A Qualitative, Pathway Initiated Pest Risk Assessment



[for stakeholder comments up to 2023-03-02]

The purpose of this report is to assess the pest risks associated with importing commercially produced immature fresh fruits of coconut, Cocos nucifera L. (Aracaceae), from Viet Nam into the United States for consumption.

Based on the market access request submitted by Viet Nam, we considered the pathway to include the following processes and conditions: the harvest of immature coconut fruit, where obviously rotten or fallen fruit are discarded in the field. We considered the post-harvest treatment to be removal of at least 75% of the outermost layer (exocarp) and trimming of the husk (mesocarp), resulting in the final marketable product. Immature coconut fruit has a green husk that turns brown at peak maturity. We considered immature fruit where the green husk is completely removed. The pest risk ratings depend on the application of all conditions of the pathway as described in this document; immature fresh fruits of coconut produced under different conditions were not evaluated and may pose a different pest risk.

We used scientific literature, port-of-entry pest interception data, and information from the government of Viet Nam to develop a list of pests with quarantine significance for the PRA area. These are pests that occur in Viet Nam on any host and are associated with the commodity plant species anywhere in the world.

We found no organisms that met the threshold for unacceptable consequences of introduction and can follow the pathway.


  • Ceroplastes rusci
  • Coccidohystrix insolita
  • Cocos nucifera
  • Exallomochlus sp.


  • Cocos nucifera


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 416,59kB

PRA Area

  • United States of America