Importation of fresh Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia) fruit from Brazil into the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands for consumption - A Qualitative, Pathway Initiated Pest Risk Assessment
[Draft made available to stakeholder comments up to 2022-12-03]
The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prepared this document to assess pest risks associated with importing commercially-produced fruit of Tahiti lime, Citrus latifolia (Rutaceae), for consumption from Brazil into the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Based on the market access submitted by Brazil, we considered the pathway to include the following processes and conditions: Fruit will be free of leaves, twigs, and other plant parts, except for stems that are less than 1 inch long and attached to the fruit. The pest risk ratings depend upon the application of all conditions of the pathway as described. Fruit produced under different conditions were not evaluated and may have a different pest risk.
Using scientific literature, port-of-entry pest interception data, and information from the government of Brazil, we developed a list of pests with quarantine significance for the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands associated with Tahiti lime (in any country) and present in Brazil (on any host).
The pathogens Elsinoë australis (sweet orange scab), Guignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot), and Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (citrus canker) are reported from Tahiti lime, are present in Brazil, and are quarantine pests for the United States (in limited distribution and under official control). USDA APHIS conducted pest risk assessments examining the likelihood that these pathogens could spread through the movement of commercial citrus fruit intended for consumption. USDA APHIS has determined that commercially-packed fruit is not an epidemiologically significant pathway for the introduction and establishment of these pathogens into new areas. These pathogens are regulated, and additional import requirements will be specified in the risk management document as a condition of entry for citrus fruit from Brazil into the continental United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
The following organisms are candidates for pest risk management because they meet the threshold for unacceptable consequences of introduction:
- Brevipalpus californicus, B. obovatus, B. papayensis, B. phoenicis, and B. yothersi [vectors of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV)]
- Diaphorina citri
- Elsinoë australis
- Guignardia citricarpa
- Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus
- Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri
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- Puerto Rico
- United States of America
- Virgin Islands (US)