EPPO Platform
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Pest categorisation of Lepidosaphes pineti, L. pini and L. piniphila


The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Lepidosaphes pineti Borchsenius the pine oyster scale, Lepidosaphes pini (Maskell) the Oriental pine scale and Lepidosaphes piniphila Borchsenius (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) for the EU, following a commodity risk assessment of dwarfed Pinus parviflora grafted onto P. thunbergii from China in which the three Lepidosaphes species were identified as pests of possible concern to the EU. All three species are native to Asia. L. pineti is only known from China; L. piniphila occurs in China, Japan and Malaysia; and L. pini is present in China, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and has been introduced to the USA. All three species feed primarily on Pinus spp., including several important forestry and ornamental trees, and L. pineti and L. pini have adapted to feed on North American species of pine. L. pineti also feeds on Torreya grandisL. pini on Abies sp., Cunninghamia lanceolataCycas spp., Podocarpus spp., Taxus sp. and Torreya sp.; and L. piniphila on Podocarpus spp. and T. grandis. All developmental stages occur on the foliage. Host plants for planting and cut branches with foliage could provide pathways into the EU. However, prohibitions on the import of Pinus close the main pathway. Certain dwarfed Pinus spp. from Japan are provided with a derogation for entry into the EU. The main hosts (Pinus spp.) occur throughout the EU in climate zones that match those where the three Lepidosaphes species occur in Asia. If any of the three Lepidosaphes species were to enter the EU, conditions in most of the EU are conducive to establishment. Following establishment, impacts on pines by L. pineti and L. pini would be expected. There are no published reports of L. piniphila causing damage to pine. L. pineti and L. pini satisfy the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for them to be regarded as potential Union quarantine pests. L. piniphila does not satisfy the criteria, as there is no evidence that it is harmful; however, there is a key uncertainty regarding whether it is synonymous with a closely related species, L. pitysophila, which is recorded as a pest of pine in China.


  • Lepidosaphes pineti
  • Lepidosaphes pini
  • Lepidosaphes piniphila


  • Abies
  • Cunninghamia lanceolata
  • Cycas
  • Cycas revoluta
  • Pinus
  • Pinus densiflora
  • Pinus elliottii
  • Pinus luchuensis
  • Pinus massoniana
  • Pinus palustris
  • Pinus parviflora var. pentaphylla
  • Pinus taeda
  • Pinus thunbergii
  • Podocarpus
  • Podocarpus macrophyllus
  • Taxus
  • Torreya
  • Torreya grandis


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Link to file

PRA Area

  • EU
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden