EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Express PRA for Tomato brown rugose fruit virus


In 2015, the tobamovirus „tomato brown rugose fruit virus“ (ToBRFV) was found in Jordan but it was already present in Israel in 2014. In 2018, the virus occurred in Mexico, in California (USA) and Palestine. In 2018, the virus was found in Sicily. So far, ToBRFV is not present in Germany and the EU. It is listed neither in the Directive 2000/29/EC nor by EPPO. Since January 2019, it is included in the EPPO Alert List. ToBRFV infests tomato plants and causes mosaic discolouring and deformation of the fruits. The virus can infect up to 100 % of a crop. The available resistance-genes in conventional tomato varieties against other tobamoviruses are not effective against ToBRFV. In Mexico, also damage on peppers was detected. Currently, only little information on the virus is available and thus, further possible damage on other plants cannot be excluded. The virus is able to establish in greenhouse crops of tomatoes and pepper in Germany and other EU-Member States. Potential host plants are also present outdoors that could at least serve as a reservoir for new infections. Due to its high damage potential for the tomato production, ToBRFV poses a considerable phytosanitary risk for Germany and other EU-Member States. Based on this risk analysis, it is assumed that the pest is able to establish in Germany and in other Member States and to cause considerable damage. ToBRFV is classified as a potential quarantine pest. Thus, the infestation has to be eradicated according to § 4a of the Plant Inspection Order. Infested plant material must be disposed of by incineration for the secure inactivation of the virus. Strict sanitization measures have to be applied to prevent the movement to other production sites or further companies. An infestation caused by this pest has to be notified officially.


  • Tobamovirus fructirugosum


  • Capsicum annuum
  • Chenopodiastrum murale
  • Chenopodium quinoa
  • Nicotiana benthamiana
  • Nicotiana glutinosa
  • Nicotiana tabacum
  • Petunia hybrids
  • Solanum lycopersicum
  • Solanum melongena
  • Solanum nigrum
  • Solanum tuberosum


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Download 260,73kB

PRA Area

  • Germany