Pest categorisation of Crisicoccus pini
The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Crisicoccus pini (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for the EU territory. This species is not included in the EU Commission Implementing Regulation 2019/2072. C. pini, a mealybug native to Japan, has spread to other parts of Asia, as well as to North America and Europe. It has been introduced to northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna), where it is under official control. It has also been mistakenly reported from France, although the report refers to a single finding in Monaco. It develops on Abies, Keteleeria, Larix and Pinus species (Pinaceae). It feeds on the needles, especially new growth. It is sexually reproductive, has one or more generations each year and overwinters in the nymphal stage. The main natural dispersal stage is the first instar, which crawls over the plant or may be dispersed further by wind and animals. It can be transported over longer distances with plants for planting. Large populations cause yellowing, needle loss, reduction in growth and recruitment, dieback and mortality. It has had a significant impact to P. densiflora (Japanese red pine) and P. thunbergii (black pine) in China, and P. pinaster (maritime pine) and P. pinea (stone pine) in Italy. Adult and immature C. pini could enter the EU with conifer plants for planting. The import of the host genera Abies, Larix and Pinus, from third countries is largely prohibited, although there are derogations for dwarfed Pinus coming from Japan and the Republic of Korea. The host genus Keteleeria may be imported with a phytosanitary certificate. Host availability and climate suitability indicate that most of the EU would be suitable for establishment. Phytosanitary measures are available to inhibit further introductions and slow the spread within the EU. C. pini satisfies all the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest.
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