EPPO Platform
on PRAs

Scientific opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Arabis mosaic virus, Raspberry ringspot virus, Strawberry latent ringspot virus and Tomato black ring virus to the EU territory


The Panel on Plant Health assessed the risk to plant health of Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV), Raspberry ringspot virus (RpRSV) and Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) for the European Union (EU) territory, and evaluated the current EU legislation and possible risk reduction options. These viruses are largely restricted to Europe and their vector nematodes and at‐risk hosts occur widely in Europe. Plants for planting were identified as the most significant entry pathway and the probability of entry is rated as unlikely to moderately likely for ArMV and as very unlikely to unlikely for RpRSV, SLRSV and TBRV. These ratings have moderate uncertainty. The probability of establishment is rated very likely with low uncertainty. The probability of local spread by natural means is likely, with low to medium uncertainty, whereas that of human‐assisted long‐distance spread is unlikely to moderately likely, with high uncertainty. 

Potential impact is rated minimal to minor in all hosts, with the exception of ArMV in grapevine, for which it is minor to moderate. These ratings have medium or high uncertainty. 

The current legislation addresses only two of the many host species of these viruses, but other weaknesses were also identified. If the current legislation were removed, no major consequences would be expected unless the industry simultaneously ceased its voluntary certification activity. Prohibition and the use of phytosanitary certificates, if covering the complete host ranges of the viruses and relying on appropriate tests, are the options with highest effectiveness against the risk of introduction whereas certification schemes and pest‐free areas or production sites are those with the highest effectiveness against the spread and impact risks. All options have limitations in feasibility, with uncertainty ratings from moderate to high. The combination of partially effective options may be highly effective in some crops.


  • Nepovirus arabis
  • Nepovirus nigranuli
  • Nepovirus rubi
  • Stralarivirus fragariae


Type File Size
Pest Risk Analysis Link to file

PRA Area

  • EU
  • Austria
  • Belgium
  • Bulgaria
  • Croatia
  • Cyprus
  • Czech Republic
  • Denmark
  • Estonia
  • Finland
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia
  • Spain
  • Sweden