EPPO Pest Risk Analysis for Chrysobothris femorata and C. mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)
C. femorata sensu stricto and C. mali are native to North America. C. femorata s.s., further referred to as C. femorata, belongs to a complex of 12 species. C. femorata is recorded in all continental states of the USA (except Alaska) and in southern Canadian provinces, while C. mali has a more western distribution in the USA and Canada. Both species are polyphagous pests attacking many deciduous trees and shrubs. Both species have long been known as wood boring pests of trees in various environments such as in nurseries, orchards and landscapes. Both species primarily attack stressed trees, but there is also evidence that C. femorata can attack plants in nurseries after the post-transplant establishment period. Currently, impact by C. femorata is reported especially on commercial nurseries and landscape trees (incl. urban trees) in southeastern USA, while C. mali is an emerging concern for some fruit crops with damage reported on hazelnut and walnut in Oregon and California. Serious damage has not been reported in the northern part of their range, except for C. mali in dryer areas of Oregon and British Columbia.
The likelihood of entry for both pests was rated high, and round wood with bark is the pathway with the highest rating. The likelihood of entry on plants for planting, and sawn wood with bark (>6 mm), was rated as moderate, while the likelihood of entry on other pathways was assessed to be lower. Confirmed hosts are widespread in the EPPO region, and both species may expand their host range. Suitable climatic conditions exist in a major part of the EPPO region. The likelihood of establishment outdoors was rated as high but with a higher uncertainty rating for C. mali due to more uncertainty about environmental conditions needed for establishment. The magnitude of spread was rated as moderate with a moderate uncertainty. The flight capability of adults is unknown, but both species can be spread over long distances on human-assisted pathways, especially infested wood and plants for planting.
Impact in North America was assessed as moderate (in areas where economic damages have been reported), with large differences between areas. The potential impact (for the endangered area) in the EPPO region was assessed to be higher due to more limited availability of control options (insecticides), and it was rated as moderate to high. Eradication is likely to be difficult due to a high likelihood of late detection, the wide host range and cryptic life cycle, and the lack of treatments.
The EWG proposed that phytosanitary measures should be recommended for plants for planting of hosts, sawn wood (>6mm in thickness) and round wood of hosts, deciduous wood chips, hogwood and processing wood material, as well as cut branches of hosts. ISPM 15 was considered a sufficient measure for wood packaging material.
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